موضوع: الماضي التام Past Perfect الثلاثاء 26 أكتوبر 2010, 7:23 am
الماضي التام Past Perfect
FORM had + past participle هاد مع التصريف الثالث
* You had studied English before you moved to New York. * Had you studied English before you moved to New York? * You had not studied English before you moved to New York.
Positive * I had finished. * You had finished. * We had finished. * They had finished. * He had finished. * She had finished. * It had finished.
Negative * I had not finished. * You had not finished. * We had not finished. * They had not finished. * He had not finished. * She had not finished. * It had not finished.
Question * Had I finished? * Had you finished? * Had we finished? * Had they finished? * Had he finished? * Had she finished? * Had it finished?
USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
يستخدم لإكمال فعل قصير بعد شيء ما حدث في الماضي في الماضي التام يعبر عن فكرة شيئ ما حدث قبل إجراء آخر في الماضي. كما يمكن أن يظهر شيئا قد حدث قبل وقت محدد في الماضي.
* I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. * I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. * Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times. * Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand? * She only understood the movie because she had read the book. * Kristine had never been to an opera before last night. * We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance. * A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006? B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before
USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs) الإستخدام الثاني المدة قبل شيء حدث في الماضي (الأفعال القصيرة غير السمتمرة) وهنا بعض الإمثلة:
With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.
* We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. * By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years. * They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.
Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.